This volume is the first ever collection devoted to the field of proof-theoretic semantics. Contributions address topics including the systematics of introduction and elimination rules and proofs of normalization, the categorial characterization of deductions, the relation between Heyting's and Gentzen's approaches to meaning, knowability paradoxes, proof-theoretic foundations of set theory, Dummett's justification of logical laws, Kreisel's theory of constructions, paradoxical reasoning, and the defence of model theory.
The field of proof-theoretic semantics has existed for almost 50 years, but the term itself was proposed by Schroeder-Heister in the 1980s. Proof-theoretic semantics explains the meaning of linguistic expressions in general and of logical constants in particular in terms of the notion of proof. This volume emerges from presentations at the Second International Conference on Proof-Theoretic Semantics in Tübingen in 2013, where contributing authors were asked to provide a self-contained description and analysis of a significant research question in this area. The contributions are representative of the field and should be of interest to logicians, philosophers, and mathematicians alike.
Genre: Politics & Social Sciences Length: 289 Pages (4,650 KB) Lending: Not Enabled Added: Aug 4th, 2020
This collection presents you with the biographies of fifty-eight individuals, some of them famous names, some forgotten men of the past, but all crucial in the accomplishment of a single object, the independence of the United State:
Dr. Benjamin Rush
Thomas Lynch, Jr.
Francis Hopkinson, Esq.
Charles Carroll, of Carrollton
Richard Henry Lee
Robert Treat Paine
Francis Lightfoot Lee
Declaration of Independence
Washington's Farewell Address
A Declaration by the Representatives of the United Colonies of North America
Articles of Confederation
Constitution of the United States
The Declaration of Independence as originally written by Thomas Jefferson
Genre: Politics & Social Sciences Length: 526 Pages (1,839 KB) Lending: Not Enabled Added: Aug 4th, 2020
On a journey of self-discovery, a man unwittingly barters his life for the true knowledge of existence.
Skeptical of his reality, a man proclaimed as the Never-Existing joins a defunct trio of siblings as they traverse surreal worlds in search of enlightenment. Following on the fringes parallel to their journey, a shape-shifting jackal manifests visions from the past, offering a depth of perspective to their quest. But within another world, or rather from another time, a manipulating entity seeks to undermine their decisions by communicating impressions of familial deceit. As the group aimlessly steps from scene to scene without any knowledge of formal direction, they begin to sense an unnatural life drawing them towards a dangerous path.
Genre: Politics & Social Sciences Length: 245 Pages (1,709 KB) Lending: Enabled Added: Aug 4th, 2020
"Islam is so sweet from the inside." Sheikh Abdel-Hadi said in his weekly khutbah, or sermon, one Friday. But Islam is often misunderstood. Come with me to one mosque to meet its leaders, worshipers, families and community. Learn about people who grew up in America, people who immigrated here, people who have always been Muslim and people new to the faith. This book explores life in Delaware's Islamic community through a series of interviews, culminating in a celebration that brought us all together.
Including interviews with:
Non profit organizations
Founders of the mosque
Employees & Volunteers
Also including a full transcribed khutbah.
Genre: Politics & Social Sciences Length: 163 Pages (9,103 KB) Lending: Enabled Added: Aug 4th, 2020
Consolation of Philosophy (Latin: Consolatio Philosophiae) is a philosophical work by Boethius, written around the year 524. It has been described as the single most important and influential work in the West on Medieval and early Renaissance Christianity, and is also the last great Western work of the Classical Period. Anicius Manlius Severinus Boëthius, commonly called Boethius (c. 480-524 or 525 AD), was a philosopher of the early 6th century. He was born in Rome to an ancient and prominent family which included emperors Petronius Maximus and Olybrius and many consuls. His father, Flavius Manlius Boethius, was consul in 487 after Odoacer deposed the last Western Roman Emperor. Boethius, of the noble Anicia family, entered public life at a young age and was already a senator by the age of 25. Boethius himself was consul in 510 in the kingdom of the Ostrogoths. In 522 he saw his two sons become consuls. Boethius was imprisoned and eventually executed by King Theodoric the Great, who suspected him of conspiring with the Eastern Roman Empire. While jailed, Boethius composed his Consolation of Philosophy, a philosophical treatise on fortune, death, and other issues. The Consolation became one of the most popular and influential works of the Middle Ages.
Genre: Politics & Social Sciences Length: 129 Pages (1,016 KB) Lending: Not Enabled Added: Aug 4th, 2020
"Thus Spake Zarathustra: A Book for All and None" chronicles the fictitious travels and speeches of Zarathustra, the founder of Zoroastrianism. Zarathustra contains the famous dictum "God is dead" and the concept of the "Übermensch" (overman or superman).
In "Beyond Good and Evil" Nietzsche accuses past philosophers of lacking critical sense and blindly accepting dogmatic premises in their consideration of morality. The work moves into the realm "beyond good and evil" in the sense of leaving behind the traditional morality which Nietzsche subjects to a destructive critique in favour of what he regards as an affirmative approach.
"The Birth of Tragedy or, Hellenism and Pessimism" is a work of dramatic theory which discusses the history of the tragic form and introduces an intellectual dichotomy between the Dionysian and the Apollonian. Nietzsche believed that in classical Athenian tragedy an art form that transcended the pessimism and nihilism of a fundamentally meaningless world.
Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900) was a German philosopher, cultural critic, poet, philologist, and Latin and Greek scholar whose work has exerted a profound influence on Western philosophy and modern intellectual history. Because of Nietzsche's evocative style and provocative ideas, his philosophy generates passionate reactions. His works remain controversial, due to varying interpretations and misinterpretations of his work.
Genre: Politics & Social Sciences Length: 628 Pages (1,830 KB) Lending: Not Enabled Added: Aug 3rd, 2020
In 1919, while traveling in Japan on sabbatical leave, John Dewey was invited by Peking University to visit China. Dewey and his wife, Alice, arrived in Shanghai on May 1, 1919, just days before student demonstrators took to the streets of Peking to protest the decision of the Allies in Paris to cede the German held territories in Shandong province to Japan. Their demonstrations on May Fourth excited and energized Dewey, and he ended up staying in China for two years, leaving in July 1921. In these two years, well aware of both Japanese expansionism into China and the attraction of Bolshevism to some Chinese, Dewey advocated that Americans support China's transformation and that Chinese base this transformation in education and social reforms, not revolution. Their works and letters from China and Japan describing their experiences to their family were published in 1920.
John Dewey (1859-1952) is one of the primary figures associated with the philosophy of pragmatism and is considered one of the founders of functional psychology. His ideas have been influential in education and social reform. Known for his advocacy of democracy, Dewey considered two fundamental elements -- schools and civil society -- to be major topics needing attention and reconstruction to encourage experimental intelligence and plurality.
Genre: Politics & Social Sciences Length: 198 Pages (1,498 KB) Lending: Not Enabled Added: Aug 3rd, 2020